Satya's blog - Typing in Marathi
Found the instructions on some Indian web sites, in Ubuntu I can type directly in Marathi (and Hindi). I wanted the instruction so I would have an easier time translating strings for Chesspark (as a favor). (Chesspark? "an exciting new community for online chess.")
So anyway, System -> Administration -> Language Support. Scroll through the list and click the ones you want. Under input method, you can click "Enable support to enter complex characters" but I think it's not required. The system may install some packages and ask for a reboot. It's not required for most apps like Firefox, Pidgin IM, and maybe vim (with vim, it works in the terminal but that file in Firefox looks weird. probably character set or encoding issues).
The right click the panel/taskbar, Add To Panel, and select Keyboard Indicator from the Utilities section. That should put an indicator on your panel, right click and select Keyboard Preferences, Layouts. Click Add to add India to the list, and close it. Clicking on the panel indicator will switch input methods. Right click and Show Current Layout to see which (real) key produces which code. Enjoy.